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Racial Equity Impact Analysis (REIA)

The Racial Equity Impact Analysis helps the City consider racial equity outcomes when shaping policies, practices, programs and budgets.
Pohlad Foundation grant for alternative Mental Health Response and a Police Early Intervention System - REIA (Standard)

Section 1: Background
Public Safety Yes
Housing No
Economic Development No
Public Services No
Environmental Justice No
Built Environment & Transportation No
Public Health Yes
Arts & Culture No
Workforce No
Spending Yes
Data Yes
Community Engagement Yes

Alternatives to police mental health response develop emergency service responses that don’t require police. Led by the Minneapolis Office of Performance and Innovation (OPI), this work includes engaging community to analyze data for opportunities and test new ideas for alternatives to police response. OPI is developing several pilots for alternatives to police response. Mental health alternative response will focus on embedding mental health professionals in 911 to improve behavioral health triage and using mobile behavioral health crisis response teams to provide an alternative to police for people having a behavioral health crisis. 

The goal of the Police Early Intervention System (EIS) is to recognize the impact of job and personal stress on officer performance and intervene at the earliest opportunity to redirect performance to meet the Department’s values and community expectations. Correcting unacceptable officer behavior and performance early reduces negative impacts on the community, reduces citizen complaints and reduces potential litigation. Providing officers with corrective and supportive interventions reduces formal discipline and termination, increases officer wellbeing and mental health, reduces health care, Workers Compensation and disability separation claims and saves City resources by reducing hiring and training costs through retention of productive, professional employees. 

The Minneapolis Police Department is dedicated to professional, fair and impartial policing for all communities in the City of Minneapolis. All residents, businesses, workers and visitors to the City are entitled to safely and confidently enjoy the diverse commercial, employment, cultural and entertainment opportunities the City has to offer. The Police Department is committed to raising the standards of policing in the city.  The Department is committed to pursuing recommendations made in 2015 by the Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs to build trust and increase accountability including the implementation of a prevention-oriented EIS based on model practices such as automated data systems to operationalize EIS, community and department collaboration guiding the development and ongoing improvement of the system and the availability of a broad range of interventions to support effective, Constitutional policing for all of Minneapolis. 

Commander Christopher Granger and Wendy Guck 
Section 2: Data

Both the alternative mental health response and the raising and maintenance of Police performance and behavior standards will affect all racial and demographic constituencies in Minneapolis.  

Data available from the Police Department's mental health response provide the following data: 

Mental Health Calls for Police Service 

% of Calls 

Total 2019 

1.91% 

5,893 

% of Calls 

Total 2020 

2.19% 

6,318 

% of Calls 

Total 2021 

2.56% 

2,212 

Police Mental Health Incident Response, July 9, 2018 to May 12, 2021 

Total Nature Code Emotionally Disturbed Person (EDP) recorded: 11,983 calls; Total FINAL Nature Code EDP recorded: 6,167 subjects 

Gender of Emotionally Disturbed Person out of 6,167: Male (60.1%), Female (36.6%), Unknown (2.5%) and Gender Non-Conforming (0.7%) 

Race of Emotionally Disturbed Person out of 6,167: White (46.9%), Black (29.0%), Unknown (7.5%), Native American (4.9%), East African (3.8%) and Asian (1.8%) 

Total Nature Code Emotionally Disturbed Person (EDP) recorded: 11,983 calls; Total FINAL Nature Code EDP recorded: 6,167 subjects 

Gender of Emotionally Disturbed Person out of 6,167: Male (60.1%), Female (36.6%), Unknown (2.5%) and Gender Non-Conforming (0.7%) 

Race of Emotionally Disturbed Person out of 6,167: White (46.9%), Black (29.0%), Unknown (7.5%), Native American (4.9%), East African (3.8%) and Asian (1.8%) 

Use of Force reporting, as one measure of police performance is available at:(https://www.minneapolismn.gov/government/government-data/datasource/use-of-force-dashboard/.  Analysis of available citizen complaint reports is not immediately available. 

As the alternative mental health response is still in the pilot/implementation stage, no program data is available for 911 triage, dispatched mental health professional teams, or service/response by BIPOC or geographic measures. 

Much of the measurement of the success of the Police EIS increasing and maintenance of high performance standards, as well as officer wellness, will focus on the officers identified for intervention but the community impact will be measured by tracking use of force and community complaints, among other possible measures to be identified.  Data on the demographics and geographic distribution of use of force and citizen complaint reports are not readily available at this time but will be available for program analysis. 

Section 3: Community Engagement
Inform Yes
Consult Yes
Involve Yes
Collaborate Yes
Empower Yes

Extensive surveying and interviewing of the community, service providers, and those experiencing mental health issues was completed to prepare the proposed alternative mental health initiatives.  

The Police Department has been focused on Procedural Justice as a foundation for our work.  Research has shown that every police-community interaction is an opportunity to build confidence and trust.  Trust builds legitimacy and supports increased community safety.  As mutual trust increases, organizational and community cohesiveness and cooperation will also increase.  In formal and informal conversations with community and business groups, community safety meetings, neighborhood meetings, and in the City’s outreach and survey work, we have heard the community concern about trust with the MPD.  Meeting industry standards for accountability and oversight, preventing misconduct and intervening to support officer performance and wellness are important components in rebuilding trust with communities we serve.  

Additionally, rebuilding trust to increase community safety has the largest impact in our most vulnerable communities where the impact of crime is felt most starkly.  People of color are disproportionately more likely to be victims of violent crime and account for the highest percentage of victims of gunshot wounds citywide (81%).  The highest concentration of both violent crime and shots fired occur in the two precincts with the most diverse communities in the City, Precinct 3 in South Minneapolis, and Precinct 4 in North Minneapolis.  Together, these two precincts account for over 61% of the City's violent crime incident totals and 75% of the City's total homicide victims.  Thus, the highest concentration of violent crimes is occurring the City's most diverse areas.  Yet, according to a 2019 PEW Research Center survey, 84% of black adults and 63% of white adults said that in dealing with the police, blacks are generally treated less fair than whites.  Black adults are about five times as likely as whites to say they've been unfairly stopped by police because of their race or ethnicity, and Black Americans are far less likely than whites to give police high marks for the way they do their job and treating racial and ethnic groups equally. This means that most people in contact with the police, as victims, are the most distrustful of police.  Increases in trust and police legitimacy support community safety in areas most disproportionately impacted by violent crime and for BIPOC community members in all neighborhoods.  

Section 4: Analysis
Both grant program components have racial equity and community engagement as foundation concepts to improve response to all community members. 
Section 5: Evaluation
The two programs under this grant will develop and track performance metrics. As new programs, program success will begin with the implementation of the programs. Reports are required to the Grantor and city administration will be kept informed of program progress. 

Progress reports will be prepared and submitted to the Grantor under the conditions of grant and reports will be prepared and shared with city administration as requested. 

We are exploring an advisory group of stakeholders and subject matter experts to help guide our analysis and decisions. This group, like prior groups we have engaged, would be demographically representative of the community that we are serving.